CNC lathes can be divided into two types: horizontal and vertical. Horizontal lathes also have two kinds of horizontal guide rails and tilted guide rails. The higher level CNC recumbent lathe generally adopts a tilting guide rail. According to the classification of the number of tool holders, it can be divided into single tool holder CNC lathe and double tool holder CNC lathe, the former is two-coordinate control, the latter is 4 coordinate control. Most of the double tool holder recumbent lathes use a tilting guide.
CNC lathe machining, like ordinary lathes, is also utilized to machine the rotation surface of parts. Generally, it can automatically accomplish the processing of external cylindrical surface, conical surface, spherical surface, and thread, and also can machine some complex rotary surfaces, such as hyperbolic surface, etc, we always called these parts the lathe machining parts. The workpiece mounting methods of lathe and ordinary lathe are basically the same. In order to improve the processing efficiency, CNC lathe mostly adopts hydraulic, pneumatic, and electric chucks.
The shape of the CNC lathe is similar to that of an ordinary lathe, that is, the lathe parts name includes lathe-bed, spindle box, tool holder, feeding system pressure system, cooling, and lubrication system, and other parts. The feed system of the CNC lathe is qualitatively different from that of the ordinary lathe. The traditional ordinary lathe has a feed box and exchange gear holder, while the CNC lathe directly uses a servo motor to drive the slide plate and tool holder through a ball screw to realize feed movement, thus the structure of the feed system is greatly simplified.
There are many varieties of CNC lathes with different specifications, which can be classified according to the following methods.
1. Classification by lathe spindle position:
① Vertical CNC lathe referred to as CNC vertical lathe, its lathe spindle is perpendicular to the horizontal plane, a large diameter circular table used to clamp the workpiece, flexible manufacturing system FMS. this type of machine tool is mainly used for processing large radial size, axial size is relatively small-large and complex parts.
② Horizontal CNC lathe is also divided into CNC horizontal guide horizontal lathe and CNC tilting guide horizontal lathe. Its tilting guide structure can make the lathe have greater rigidity and easy to exclude chips.
2. Classified by the basic type of processed parts:
① The chuck type of CNC lathe has no tailstock and it is suitable for turning plate type (including short shaft type) parts. The clamping method is mostly electric or hydraulic control, and the chuck structure has adjustable jaws or non-quenching jaws.
② The top type of CNC lathe is equipped with ordinary tailstock or CNC tailstock, which is suitable for turning longer parts and pan parts with less large diameter.
3. Classification by the number of tool holders:
① Single tool holder CNC lathes are generally equipped with various forms of single tool holders, such as four-station horizontal indexing tool holders or multi-station turret type automatic indexing tool holders.
② Double tool holder CNC lathes of this type have a parallel distribution of the double tool holder configuration, or they can be perpendicular to each other.
4. Classification by Function:
① The economic CNC lathe adopts the simple CNC lathe formed by transforming the feed system of the ordinary lathe with a stepping motor and microcontroller, which has lower cost, but the automation degree and function are poor and the turning processing accuracy is not high, which is applicable to the turning processing of rotary class parts with low requirements.
② Ordinary CNC lathe is specially designed in structure according to the turning processing requirements and equipped with a general CNC system to form a CNC lathe with strong CNC system function and high automation and processing accuracy, which is suitable for turning to process of general rotary class parts. This kind of CNC lathe can control two coordinate axes at the same time, namely X-axis and Z-axis.
③ CNC turning
machining center adds C-axis and powerhead on the basis of ordinary CNC lathe, more advanced CNC lathe with tool magazine can control X, Z and C coordinate axes, linkage control axes can be (X, Z), (X, C) or (Z, C). Due to the increase of C-axis and milling powerhead, the processing function of this CNC lathe is greatly enhanced, in addition to general turning can be radial and axial milling, surface milling, centerline not in the center of rotation of the parts of the hole and radial hole drilling and other processing.
Other classification methods:
According to the different control methods of CNC system and other indicators, CNC lathe can be divided into many kinds, such as linear control CNC lathe, two spindle control CNC lathe, etc.; according to the special process, performance can be divided into thread CNC lathe, piston CNC lathe, crankshaft CNC lathe, and many other kinds.