What is a lathe machine?
A lathe is a machine tool that mainly uses a turning tool to turn a rotating workpiece. Drills, reamers, reamers, taps, plates, and knurling tools are also available on the lathe for the corresponding machining.
It has a wide range of processing objects and can process the inner and outer surfaces, end faces, and inner and outer threads of workpieces due to its wide range of adjustment of spindle speed and feed. This kind of lathe is mainly operated by workers manually, with low production efficiency, and is suitable for single-piece and small-batch production, we will add more parts machined by lathe machine to our website so that you can understand what kind of parts can be machined by lathe, and below we also attached a lathe machine picture for your view.
Lathe machining parts and functions
1. Jogging switch
When you start this switch, the system will start to check if the lathe running environment is normal.
Power circuit indication.
3. Main control switch
Turn on the machine power to create a circuit.
4. Cutter pump switch
Turn on cutting fluid flow.
5. Spindle speed control
Adjustment of lathe spindle operation and speed.
6. Knob switch
Turning left and turning right screw adjustment
7. Nine-stage shifting and locking lever
This part is used to adjust the pitch of the threads and the speed of automatic feed during the lathe machining, and different pitches can be obtained by adjusting the threads.
8. Cutting clamp lever
It is used to connect the pendant wheel, adjust the operation of the polished rod and the lead screw, and set the automatic feed adjustment.
9. High-low speed shift lever
Spindle high speed and low speed conversion.
10. Spindle oil level meter
Spindle lubricant display status.
11. Metric and fractional threads and clamping and feeding shifter
Used to adjust metric and inch thread conversions.
12. Starter lever
Make the spindle run forward and Reversal.
13. Cutter lever
When turning the screw, the bed saddle is set to the lead screw bar and the bed saddle is driven to move.
14. Lateral manual lever
Cross feed in turning.
15. Longitudinal and transverse escort and incisor selection handle
Adjustment of the cutter lever hooked up.
16. Escort rod
Adjustment of the upper part of the bed saddle to enable automatic operation.
Mainly used for feeding of turning workpieces.
18. Foot break
Quickly stop the lathe during the turning process.
19. Cutter table locking lever
Locking the tool holder by hand.
20. Manual lever for compound table
For turning short workpieces or turning tapered workpieces.
21. Tailstock feed handwheel
For drilling, reaming, manual feed, or to observe the depth of drilling or reaming.
22. Tailstock locking lever
For locking the tailstock immovable.
23. Center lever
Used for turning taper workpiece adjustment or aligning spindle center adjustment.
24. Tail shaft locking lever
Mainly locking tail shaft.
25. Back cover knob
Mainly to open the back cover, check the gears.
26. Gearbox oil cap
Prevent dust and iron chips from entering the hanging wheel box.
27. Digital display
For displaying coordinates X, Y axis.
Except for the ordinary lathe machine, there are other types of lathe machines, we listed its features below.
① Turret lathe
It has a turret tool holder or a rotary tool holder that can hold multiple tools so that workers can use different tools to complete multiple processes in one clamping of the workpiece, which is suitable for batch production.
② Automatic lathe
It can automatically complete the multi-process processing of small and medium-sized workpieces according to certain procedures, can automatically load and unload, and repeatedly process a batch of the same workpieces, which is suitable for mass and large production.
③ Semi-automatic lathe
There are single-axis, multi-axis, horizontal and vertical. The layout form of single-axis horizontal is similar to that of an ordinary lathe, but two sets of tool holders are installed in front and back or up and down of the spindle, which is used for processing disc, ring, and shaft workpieces, and its productivity is 3 to 5 times higher than that of the ordinary lathe.
④ Copy lathe
It can imitate the shape and size of the sample board or sample parts, and automatically complete the machining cycle of the workpiece, which is suitable for small batch and batch production of workpieces with more complex shapes, and the productivity is 10 to 15 times higher than that of ordinary lathes. There are multiple tool holders, multi-axis, chuck type, vertical type, etc.
⑤ Vertical Lathe
The spindle is perpendicular to the horizontal plane, the workpiece is clamped on the horizontal rotary table, and the tool holder moves on the crossbar or column. It is suitable for machining larger and heavier workpieces that are difficult to be mounted on ordinary lathes and is divided into two categories: single column and double column.
⑥ Shovel teeth lathe
While turning, the tool holder makes a radial reciprocating motion periodically for shoveling the shaped tooth surfaces of milling cutters, hobs, etc. Usually, with a sharpening attachment, a small grinding wheel driven by a separate motor is used to sharpen the tooth surface.
⑦ Specialized lathe
Lathes that process specific surfaces of certain types of workpieces, such as crankshaft lathes, camshaft lathes, wheel lathes, axle lathes, roll lathes, and ingot lathes, etc.
⑧ Combined lathe
It is mainly used for turning to process, but after attaching some special parts and accessories, it can also be used for boring, milling, drilling, inserting, grinding, etc. It has the characteristic of "one machine with multiple functions", and is suitable for the repair work on engineering vehicles, ships, or mobile repair stations.
⑨ Saddle lathe
The saddle lathe has a sunken bed at the left end of the headbox, which can accommodate parts with a large diameter. The shape of the lathe is high at both ends and low in the middle, resembling a saddle, so it is called a saddle lathe. The saddle lathe is suitable for processing parts with large radial dimension and small axial dimension, suitable for turning outer circle, inner hole, end face, groove, and the metric system, imperial system, modulus, and warp thread of the workpiece, and also for drilling, boring, reaming and other processes, especially suitable for single-piece and batch production enterprises. The saddle lathe can process larger diameter workpieces in the saddle slot. The machine guide is hardened and finely ground, which is convenient and reliable for operation. The lathe has the characteristics of high power, high speed, strong rigidity, high precision, and low noise.
For a better understanding of the lathe machining process, we prepared the video below for you.